#LatinoViews: NPR starting a discussion about Latinos and Hispanics in USA.

 

#LatinoViews: NPR starting a discussion about Latinos and Hispanics in USA.

NPR starting a week-long discussion about Latinos and Hispanics in USA. First day, Jan 21st 2014.

  1. I’m a Latina, who likes to eat lunch on Park Avenue… Here, that is… #LatinoViews pic.twitter.com/TFbFkbC0fM
  2. A new major poll of nearly 1,500 Latino Americans by NPR, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Harvard School of Public Health. The poll, like our previous African-American poll, covered several aspects of people’s lives — religious beliefs, personal finances, health status, education and more. It featured enough respondents that we could break them out into a few key groups by ethnic ancestry — Cubans, Dominicans, South Americans, Central Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Mexicans. We were also able to contrast responses from folks who were immigrants with those who were born in the United States.
  3. Today we’re kicking off our series that looks at the views from Latino America:  http://n.pr/1kTLVRG  #LatinoViews
  4. . @NPRCodeSwitch what about a transracial adoptee who IS Puerto Rican? #LatinoViews
  5. @nfloresy looking forward to this @NPRCodeSwitch: series that looks at the views from Latino America:  http://n.pr/1kTLVRG  #LatinoViews
  6. At 12 p.m. EST today, we’ll be hosting a Twitter chat about the #LatinoViews poll findings. Chime in with your thoughts!
  7. TODAY AT 12 PM EST. We’re hosting a Twitter chat with @NPRCodeSwitch about Latino attitudes. Join us! #LatinoViews
  8. hmm “@NPRCoNPRCodeSwitchay we’re kicking off our series that looks at the views from Latino America: http: http://n.pr/1kTLVRG inLatinoViews
  9. @NPRCodeSwitch Surprised that Puerto Ricans report speaking more english at home than spanish #LatinoViews
  10. I was surprised to see how many Latino Catholics are part of Charismatic movement. Particularly high % of Dominicans. #LatinoViews
  11. @NPRCodeSwitch The lack of fresh produce in Mexian-American neighborhoods today. #LatinoViews
  12. Cuban-Americans less likely than other Latino groups to say they’re satisfied with their lives  http://n.pr/1f3sv7M  #LatinoViews
  13. I was surprised to see how different Latino demographics responded to the questions! #LatinoViews
  14. Also surprised how few of us have a preference for calling ourselves either #Hispanic or #Latino #latinoviews
  15. Unsurprising that in @NPR‘s #LatinoViews survey that Latinos born here 2x as likely to say religion was not too or not at all important?
  16. .@LuisClemens It’s what other people call me that worries me more. #latinoviews
  17. Q2: Which do you prefer: Latino or Hispanic? Why? (We’ll get to other options in a minute.) #LatinoViews @NPRCodeSwitch
  18. Interesting that Cuban’s are more likely to say they have achieved the American dream. Less likely to be satisfied in life. #latinoviews
  19. @NPRCodeSwitch Surprised by the language stats for Puerto Rico. More English than Spanish? What was that stat like 30 yrs ago? #LatinoViews
  20. #LatinoViews As a Mexican married to a Dominican-fascinated to see that they are more likely to say they are dissatisfied w/where they live.
  21. @nprnews poll: Latino immigrants more likely to say their children have better #education opportunities #LatinoViews  http://n.pr/1gWCzyM 
  22. A2. No preference btwn Latino or Hispanic. Better than being pinned for a specific nationality usually not my own. #LatinoViews
  23. .@GeeDee215 Those were interesting figures — I wonder if they owe to the aspirational Cuban-American wordview? #LatinoViews
  24. Latinos are not monolithic but we do have connecting points. Grt to see the poll focusing on similarities and differences #LatinoViews
  25. @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch I’d like to see the Latino vs. Hispanic preference for Latin Americans (living outside the U.S.). #LatinoViews
  26. @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch Do #Latinos living in the U.S. prefer to be labled by their coutnry of origin? Ex. Mexican-American #LatinoViews
  27. .@taydolven @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch I think outside the US most wd identify based on nationality – Mexican, Salvadoran etc. #latinoviews
  28. #LatinoViews @LatinoUSA We’ve been reporting abt the complexity w/in “monolithic” Latino community for decades. Good to see it in the poll.
  29. @taydolven @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch Depends on where I am. In US I ID as Nicaraguan. Outside Latin-American. #LatinoViews
  30. Q3: Or do you prefer to be known by your place of origin? Cuban American, Puerto Rican, Chicano, Chilango, etc #LatinoViews @NPRCodeSwitch
  31. Hispanic or Latino? That’s like corn vs. flour. It all depends on what you’re having and what you’re craving. 😉 #latinoviews #comidaanalogy
  32. .@LuisClemens @taydolven In TX I see more bumper stickers abt Mexican pride. On E Coast feel more lumped together #latinoviews
  33. @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch A3: American and Kansan first. Mexican ancestry is the icing on the cake! #LatinoViews
  34. Was shocked when a cuz referred to herself as Spanish, though. #HispanicVsLatino #LatinoViews
  35. A3. I prefer not to be asked “what I am.” But my place of origin US, doesn’t best match my identity. Latina does. #LatinoViews
  36. North Mexico and South Texas are both cowboy culture, so I’m a proud TEJANA. #LatinoViews @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA
  37. @ACVTweets @LuisClemens @taydolven I’m on W.Coast. Everyone assumes I’m Mexican. It’s lumped here too. #LatinoViews
  38. @Maria_Hinojosa @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch Mira vos. And you are Latin American when living outside? Wasn’t aware. #LatinoViews
  39. @NPRCodeSwitch I’m a Dominican in the UK. No real concept of Latino vs Hispanic here. I’m considered Mixed Caribbean. #LatinoViews
  40. @LatinoUSA @looopy My gut reaction towards “Hispanic” is a reminder of Euro Colonization of Latin ppls. #LatinoViews
  41. I prefer Cuban-American over Hisp/Lat for myself but wonder abt how my kids should think of themselves – Cubexicans? #latinoviews
  42. #LatinoViews my grandparents were from Mexico. my wife is from Mexico, when I’m there I’m Americano. Interesting.
  43. @ACVTweets #LatinoViews It’s starting to! When I found out grandpa lived in N. Laredo during Mex revolution, I reclaimed my Tejana identity
  44. @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch I prefer “Latino” because I feel “Hispanic” sounds too Spain-centric. #LatinoViews
  45. @LatinoUSA @looopy But I have both Spanish Euro DNA as well as Latino Indio etc… I just feel more pride abt non Euro. #LatinoViews
  46. @Maria_Hinojosa As a Spaniard living in the US, am I Hispanic/Latina? I never know what to say #LatinoViews
  47. .@TomCinKC You can be as Latino as you like in the US and still be considered Americano south of the border #latinoviews
  48. @brendapsalinas @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA Have you read, “How To Tame a Wild Tongue” by Gloria Anzaldua? Good read on this. #LatinoViews
  49. The #LatinoViews chat is really informative and all journalists should be paying attention. So should all people.
  50. The #LatinoViews chat is really informative and all journalists should be paying attention. So should all people.
  51. #LatinoViews My kids call themselves New Yorkers first. Then Domini-Mex Latinos. But they KNOW they’re Americans & so must vote here.4 sure.
  52. Just a reminder: use the hashtag #LatinoViews so that we (and other participants) can see your responses!
  53. When in Mexico I’ve stopped trying to fit in and instead think of myself as a Latina tourist. It goes over better. #LatinoViews
  54. Sometimes Iberian countries (Portugal, Spain) are included in the Hispanic/Latino definition. Why or why not? #LatinoViews @NPRCodeSwitch
  55. .@Maria_Hinojosa I feel like I know a lot of ppl like that. Angeleno or Washingtonian 1st, hard enough picking cities. #LatinoViews
  56. @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA How do Latinos feel about ppl from other backgrounds who are interested/involved in #Latino culture? #LatinoViews
  57. @NPRCodeSwitch #LatinoViews I use “Hispanic” since I don’t feel connected to a particular ethnicity. Feel more solidly Texan than anything.
  58. Second! @TokenEditrix: The #LatinoViews chat is really informative and all journalists should be paying attention. So should all people.”
  59. @NPRCodeSwitch I also wonder whether most Hispanic/Latino people in the US consider themselves people of color. #LatinoViews
  60. @LexieFO @LatinoUSA I agree completely with everything you said. Hispanic reminds me of colonization, more negative #LatinoViews
  61. Where do Brazilian/Brazilian-Americans fit in this conversation? Don’t define themselves as Hispanic OR Latino. @NPRCodeSwitch #LatinoViews
  62. #latinoviews chat has got los #tweepers fired up! Loving this conversation. Let’s keep it going. @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA
  63. @Maria_Hinojosa Same here. New Yorker first, then American, then Dominican. Lived most my life in NY. I identify with it most #LatinoViews
  64. @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA Have a friend who is involved with @CookingMatters – she does a lot of food education with Latinos. #LatinoViews
  65. I say “Latina” bc it’s pan-whatever, but I consider myself la pocha, Mexican-American, Tejana-ish, depending on the context #LatinoViews
  66. Q4: Have you felt discriminated against in the past 12 months because you are Latino/a? #LatinoViews pic.twitter.com/SAj9tsqQWp
  67. Im often criticized by other Latinos– I have no accent, speak only English, follow few norms, dont partake in celebrations. #LatinoViews
  68. #LatinoViews I’ll be your Latina, Hispanic,Mexican-american,Tex-mex, Tejana,or just an American Chica. In the end its a social construction
  69. @NPRCodeSwitch Not overtly. But I can tell there are expectations / or lack there of b/c of my skin. #LatinoViews
  70. @NPRCodeSwitch I’ve been spoken down to more than properly discriminated against this past year. Oh the low expectations! #latinoviews
  71. Being #LatinoIncognito means I see the discrimination, but don’t experience it myself. #LatinoViews
  72. Yo veo… a really interesting conversation by @LatinoUSA and @NPRCodeSwitch on #Latinoviews.
  73. .@NPRCodeSwitch The exception to this finding were Cubans. Only 8% of Cubans reported the same. #latinoviews
  74. .@NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA That would be because both Hispanic and Latino are both really inadequate words. #LatinoViews
  75. @NPRCodeSwitch I’ve had racial slurs shouted at me while walking down the street. At least they can tell I’m not Asian. #LatinoViews
  76. I was taught that Hispanic is geography and Latino is cultural. I say Hispanic of Mex descent, latino implied #LatinoViews @NPRCodeSwitch
  77. I’m just like my breakfast tacos: Part Mexican, Part American and 100% Tejano. #latinoviews #tacos #texas #latino
  78. .@NPRCodeSwitch Since they come here to work, that’s not surprising, is it? #latinoviews
  79. @LexieFO @NPRCodeSwitch I think minority and POC are sometimes overlapping but not synonymous (e.g. gay white person) #LatinoViews
  80. Great conversation unfolding on #LatinoViews sparked by @NPRCodeSwitch – not just on Hispanic/Latino label choice but on identity generally.
  81. .@NPRCodeSwitch Even the question makes my teeth hurt. Are we just going to forget about every day microaggressions? #LatinoViews
  82. #latinoviews @brendapsalinas For example, I’ve heard Latino used for ppl who do not live in the US & are from a Latin American country.
  83. What about Black Latinos? Where do they fit into this conversation? #Latinoviews @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA
  84. #LatinoViews @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch But the number of times I have been told by my paisanos that is don’t “look” Mexican…ay.
  85. Preference for what to be called is geographic for me. I prefer to identify as Chicana but word unknown outside southwest. #LatinoViews
  86. @NPRCodeSwitch @LeatherIvy “You speak Spanish, right?” “How many children do you have?” “Were you born here?” #LatinoViews
  87. @callmeechief @NPRCodeSwitch Same! I felt more in TX amg other Mx-Amer growing up than I have on the East Coast since 18 y/o. #LatinoViews
  88. #LatinoViews Nvr was Mexican enuff 4my ppl.dnt speak spanish,no accent parents werehippies, my fam been in US for 100yrs #Chicano #LA
  89. #latinoviews @NPRCodeSwitch @LeatherIvy @LatinoUSA I agree as the poll showed there’s no single word that captures the US Latino experience
  90. Let’s talk about absence/lack of visibility of Latin@ intellectuals. Same old talking heads & no lifting of Indy Latin@ voices #LatinoViews
  91. The northeast is the worst. I hate being called “Spanish.” I’m not Spanish despite colonial history. I have my own!!! #LatinoViews
  92. @CarolinaCaoNY @ACVTweets @NPRCodeSwitch Some felt that “light” Latinos of European descent don’t count as POC. #LatinoViews
  93. @NPRCodeSwitch #LatinoViews Every Latino in the US knowthey can be stopped anytime, anywhere & asked to define ourselves & show our papers.
  94. Yes, we’re often considered intellectual lightweights, and not invited to convos about “serious” topics. @mamitamala #LatinoViews
  95. @LEEandLOW @ACVTweets @NPRCodeSwitch Light skinned & ppl usually cant tell what I am exactly but they know that I’m “of color.”#latinoviews
  96. @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch Most ppl use Latino now. Both are political labels that can be used to divide us or unite us. #LatinoViews
  97. @ACVTweets @NPRCodeSwitch @LexieFO Categorizing is complicated. I think what’s most important is how someone self-identifies #LatinoViews
  98. @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA If you are from a country spelled the same in EN/ES (Argentina) how do you pronounce it in the US? #LatinoViews
  99. Q5: In our poll, mainland Puerto Ricans were the group most likely to speak English at home. Is this true for you? Why? #LatinoViews
  100. .@LEEandLOW @CarolinaCaoNY @NPRCodeSwitch The rub: teachers would whip kids in my dad’s class for speaking Spanish. #LatinoViews
  101. In the end, all #LatinoViews matter, and we need to be honest with each other to have real conversations, even the uncomfortable ones.
  102. @NPRCodeSwitch I am in London, though. Where Spanish is not even close to the second language. #LatinoViews
  103. Also not discrimination, but I feel that neither country fully embraces me as one of their own. #LatinoViews @NPRCodeSwitch
  104. @callmeechief @MsDuality it’s cool to us, when people are themselves that is cool with us #LatinoViews
  105. Not Spanish or Latin. Indeed! MT @pablitasan I hate being called “Spanish.” I’m not Spanish despite colonial history. #LatinoViews
  106. @NPRCodeSwitch In DC & MA, hard 2 tell what’s discrimination & what’s city rudeness. More offended by exoticization, honestly. #LatinoViews
  107. .@mamitamala been a struggle to make some of our folks ready for prime time. Gotta play to be picked for team. Pipeline issues. #latinoviews
  108. A2 – I use Latin@ and @ALDIANews uses it as its style, to include indigenous Latin@s who have no Spanish heritage at all #LatinoViews
  109. .@NPRCodeSwitch “When did your family come here?”About 20,000 years ago. Or did you mean the Spanish part? 😀 #LatinoViews
  110. Even if you aren’t Latino check out this discussion. #LatinoViews
  111. “Have you felt discriminated against in past 12 months cause you Latin@?” Hard to keep count #LatinoViews @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA
  112. I HUUURD that @mamitamala !! unless the topic is #immigration or teenage pregnancy OF COURSE! #LatinoViews
  113. @xicano007 a combo of all of the above plus a real lack of support and favoring the already privileged/ those with access #LatinoViews
  114. Not ‘white’ enough to be a true American, but way too Americanized to be a Mexican. #homeless #LatinoViews @NPRCodeSwitch
  115. @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch Depends on the situation & who I’m talking to. Among other Latinos it is more about place of origin. #LatinoViews
  116. @followthelede well also because we are multiracial and so many pass or choose to pass doesn’t help #LatinoViews
  117. Now that I think about it, I use several identifiers: Latino, Hispanic, Chicano, Mexican, Tejano. Jefe works too 😉 #LatinoViews
  118. @CarolinaCaoNY agree but I think lots of women’s orgs talk a good game about lifting voices but don’t actually do it #LatinoViews
  119. I always say ‘I’m from Texas’ and they are like ‘but where’s your family from’ … Uh, TEXAS! @breelop @NPRCodeSwitch #LatinoViews
  120. True, but I grew up in Guatemala, and more than 60% percent of pop. is from Latin America but not “hispanic” @mamitamala #LatinoViews
  121. @SaraChicaD hey I’ll write/talk about them both pero right we are so much more #LatinoViews
  122. In ATL working @ B&N: Old man: Saldana, what’s that? Me: American. Old Man: No, no, I mean, where are you from? Me: Texas! #LatinoViews 1/2
  123. @mamitamala – Whoops, thought you were referring to my other answer. Sorry! #LatinoViews
  124. the questions being asked on #LatinoViews right now are hella awkward & stale. Ponganle chile and spanglish it up @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA
  125. 2/2 #LatinoViews Me: Smith, what’s that? Him: American. Him: walks away.
  126. @antoniacere @NPRCodeSwitch My mom lives in PR and she says that everything over there seems to be turning to English. #LatinoViews
  127. Some interesting conversation right now on #LatinoViews by @NPRCodeSwitch. Chatting about Latino life + culture in the U.S.
  128. @followthelede well there it is. Meeting peeps where they are at..the nuances of Latin@ identity politics #LatinoViews
  129. It’s funny bcuz you can have Latino/Hispanic heritage and still be racially black but some people don’t see it that way. #LatinoViews
  130. Curious about young Mex-Americans in the northeast. How do they create identity? Mine linked to my relationship with the border #LatinoViews
  131. @mendezgonzales @breelop @NPRCodeSwitch From Kansas…and yup, from Kansas. My roots sometimes aren’t deep enough. #LatinoViews #streetcred/div>
  132. This is why we are about to put it all on the line to demand Mexican American Studies for Texas #LatinoViews We live this convo everyday.
  133. .@NPRCodeSwitch English at home growing up. My father would say that Spanish is another European, colonialist language. #LatinoViews
  134. @followthelede @mamitamala At 12,I learned I was a “Ladino” in Guate when my fam inadvertently frightened an Indigenous woman #LatinoViews
  135. People tend to make a lot of assumptions 1st on what they think I am & then based on me being Latina. @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA #LatinoViews
  136. Consider myself racially black even though grandfathers are Puerto Rican. Some uncles and aunts identify w 1 side or the other #LatinoViews
  137. @GeeDee215 #LatinoViews don’t you think that has to do with length in mainland of most PRs + colonialism?
  138. Basically, no matter what your heritage, you can choose WHATEVER you want to be identified as OR NOT #LatinoViews
  139. @LatinoVoices : 1/2 mexican, 1/2 caucasian – what does that make me? Human! #latinoviews
  140. The #LatinoViews and the account @LatinoUSA is enlightening and very informative.
  141. @hugorojo Don’t get me started on the enchi’s and chile rellenos from #ElChuco #latinoviews
  142. @armedinthevilla Hmm. But not both? Maybe a fear that not being “enough” of the other will lead to exclusion? #LatinoViews
  143. The #LatinoViews chat is winding down! ¡Gracias por su participación!
  144. I don’t subscribe to the notion that others should define u. If u wanna be considered Hispanic or Latino, that’s up to u #LatinoViews
  145. Many talking-head intellectuals are pub authors & columnists in MSM & as we know there’s a dearth 2 #latinoviews @mamitamala @CarolinaCaoNY
  146. Why is it hard to believe that we are from here, too?! 4 maybe 5 generations from TX. C’mon! @breelop @LatinoUSA @NPRCodeSwitch #LatinoViews
  147. But does #LatinoViews identity even matter when we’re going to be grouped by others anyway? I want it to, but feel like it doesn’t
  148. #LatinoViews is really showing how complicated identity is for most of us. Mainly prompted by questions from others about where we’re “from”
  149. .@CarolinaCaoNY *Absolutely.* (Relatedly: 49 percent of PRs lean English (More English than Spanish or English-only) at home. #LatinoViews
  150. Another one of my favorites, “OF COURSE your last name ends in Z, what a give away!!!” Uhh. Excuse you? #LatinoViews
  151. We’re winding down our #LatinoViews chat. Thank you all for tuning in! We will continue tweeting with the same hashtag throughout the week!
  152. #LatinoViews the lack of latino representation in media drive me to work in the tv industry
  153. Hard Q: if being ethnic-less means more inclusion–in media, etc.– would we want that over our ethnic identities? #LatinoViews #latism
  154. Or, if you have a last name like mine, “you can’t be Latina because your name isn’t” @LexieFO #notmonolithicninada #LatinoViews
  155. @mamitamala @followthelede Totally! I’m trying to figure out a way to claim a mixed identity that DOESN’T perpetuate racism #LatinoViews
  156. @NPRCodeSwitch Also frustrating–assuming I’m frm elsewhere means ppl are surprised by family’s history of military service. #LatinoViews
  157. @armedinthevilla People have a hard time handling the idea of someone being two cultures at once. They want you to pick one. #LatinoViews
  158. @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA What about the ages of people responding? We should consider hist patterns of immig from diff grps. #LatinoViews
  159. @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA Assumptions: nationality, citizenship, language, education. Lots of stereotypes of Latinas out there. #LatinoViews
  160. @LexieFO Culturally, they weighed the social ramifications of being one of the other since some “looked” and others didn’t #LatinoViews
  161. Some think I’m Indian like from India. No one can just let me be Texan. But I sooo AM! @LatinoPolitics @breelop @NPRCodeSwitch #LatinoViews
  162. @LexieFO For many years, I denied I was “Latino” but my dad cured me of that foolishness. Proud “mutt” I am #LatinoViews
  163. I aggressively identify as Latina, no matter. 😉 me@bspcorleto @mamitamala #LatinoViews
  164. #latinoviews @MLSchrantz to delve into the layers/stories of these identities is what journalism is for (I like to think)
  165. @NPRCodeSwitch @LatinoUSA It’s amazing how people form their stories of who they think you are based on skin color & last name. #LatinoViews
  166. @followthelede Ya. Please tell me more of what I CAN and CANNOT be. B/C obviously you get to decide. Déjame sola. #LatinoViews
  167. Q2 I generally prefer Latino to Hispanic b/c Latino feels closer to correct, to Latinoamericano and Latino can b more inclusive #Latinoviews
  168. @LEEandLOW And I fell into the trap of picking one. It’s a silly, self-induced burden IMHO. I’m glad for my diversity #LatinoViews
  169. @nickyindurham @NPRCodeSwitch Living in DC, when u really look there r a lot of Spanish surnames on the Vietnam Memorial wall. #LatinoViews
  170. @Helga_Salinas @MLSchrantz Couldn’t agree more! #Journalism seeks to give a voice to those who wouldn’t otherwise have one. #LatinoViews
  171. In Sweden visiting my wife’s family I can pass for any other dark people not Scandanavian. I’ve never felt more Texas Mexican. #LatinoViews
  172. @Helga_Salinas Definitely. It could be a never-ending series. There’s no one right answer. (Or one answer for most in the US) #LatinoViews
  173. Q3 With felllow Latinos I’m Puerto Rican or Boricua. It’s contextual. Sometimes I need to be Latino and others Rican #Latinoviews
  174. I don’t like idea of ethnic-less. IMO it’s not worth media inclusion. Have to keep fighting the fight. @SaraChicaD #LatinoViews
  175. Top of the list of #LatinoViews; national and cultural labels are irrelevant. We’re all world citizens and need to value each other as such.
  176. @mendezgonzales I remember you saying that. I get everything fr being from Argentina to Middle Eastern #LatinoViews @breelop @NPRCodeSwitch
  177. Disappointed that #LatinoViews chat happened during my class and I missed out. I’ll have to catch up later.
  178. @NPRCodeSwitch My whole life. I’m always Mexican, not an American. It’s been made plain, even in CA, that I’m not welcome. #LatinoViews
  179. @armedinthevilla Hard to maintain bicultural identity when you’re constantly being asked to check the *one* box that fits you. #LatinoViews
  180. In Sweden, trying to speak the language, I think I speak it with a Texas Mexican accent, which is obvious there but not here: #LatinoViews.